Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation

Our Research

The Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation (CLSF) is focused on developing a detailed understanding of lignocellulose, the main structural material in plants.


Every living organism on Earth uses glucose as an energy source. Plants not only make glucose from sunlight, water and carbon dioxide, but they convert much of it into an energy-rich material – the lignocellulosic cell wall – that is both a versatile material and a recalcitrant feedstock for liquid biofuel production, both properties stemming from its hierarchical structure at the nano- to mesoscales. Our research addresses key questions in plant biology: by understanding the fundamental science of how plants manufacture lignocellulose, we may devise new ways to control it (through genetic engineering) and transform it (through chemical engineering) for improved technologies to supply our energy and material needs for a sustainable future.

Research Plan and Direction

CLSF researchers investigate:

These manufacturing processes, practiced by nearly every plant cell, greatly exceed the current capabilities of human technologies. The goals of the CLSF are to develop a detailed nano- to meso-scale understanding of plant cell walls, from glucose polymerization and glucan crystallization into cellulose microfibrils to the orderly hierarchical assembly of the components to form the mature plant cell wall. Success in our research goals will offer many lessons in how to create such hierarchical structures, how to vary and manipulate them, and potentially how to disassemble them more efficiently than is currently possible. Our team of accomplished biological, physical and computational researchers with their diverse technical expertise and team collaboration work towards these goals which straddle biology and physics.

Research Highlights

More information


  1. Hill, Joseph L; Josephs, Cooper; Barnes, William J; Anderson, Charles T; Tien, Ming (2018) Longevity in vivo of Primary Cell Wall Cellulose Synthases. Plant Molecular Biology epublished ahead of print.
  2. Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; Chaves, Arielle M; Singh, Abhishek; Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Slabaugh, Erin; Yingling, Yaroslava G; Haigler, Candace H; Roberts, Alison W (2018) Cellulose synthase ‘class specific regions’ are intrinsically disordered and functionally undifferentiated.  Journal of Integrative Plant Biology epublished ahead of print. Journal cover January 2018 vol 93 issue 2
  3. Zheng, Yunzhen; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Yuning; Wagner, Edward; Cosgrove, Daniel J (2018) Xyloglucan in the primary cell wall: assessment by FESEM, selective enzyme digestions and nanogold affinity tags. The Plant Journal 93(2): 211 – 226.  Featured as cover image of Plant Jounral Volume 93 Issue 2 and subject of a research highlight article.
  4. Barnes, William J; Anderson, Charles T (2018) Release, Recycle, Rebuild: Cell-Wall Remodeling, Autodegradation, and Sugar Salvage for New Wall Biosynthesis during Plant Development. Molecular Plant 11(1): 31-46.
  5. Tran, Mai L; McCarthy, Thomas W; Sun, Hao; Wu, Shu-Zon; Norris, Joanna H; Bezanilla, Magdalena; Vidali, Luis; Anderson, Charles T; Roberts, Alison W (2018) Direct observation of the effects of cellulose synthesis inhibitors using live cell imaging of Cellulose Synthase (CESA) in Physcomitrella patens. Scientific Reports 8(1):735.
  6. Cosgrove, Daniel J (2018) Diffuse growth of plant cell walls. Plant Physiology pp.01541.2017.
  7. Makarem, Mohamadamin; Lee, Christopher M; Sawada, Daisuke; O’Neill, Hugh M; Kim, Seong H (2018) Distinguishing Surface versus Bulk Hydroxyl Groups of Cellulose Nanocrystals Using Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 9(1): 70-75.
  8. Yang, Hui; Wang, Tuo; Oehme, Daniel; Petridis, Loukas; Hong, Mei; Kubicki, James D (2018) Structural factors affecting 13C NMR chemical shifts of cellulose: a computational study. Cellulose 25(1): 23-36.
  9. Phyo, Pyae; Wang, Tuo; Kiemle, Sarah N; O'Neill, Hugh; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Hong, Mei; Cosgrove, Daniel J (2017) Gradients in wall mechanics and polysaccharides along growing inflorescence stems. Plant Physiology 175(4): 1593-1607.
  10. Durachko, Daniel M.; Park, Yong Bum; Zhang, Tian ; Cosgrove, Daniel J (2017) Biomechanical Characterization of Onion Epidermal Cell Walls, BIO-PROTOCOL 7(24): e2662.
  11. Zhang, Tian; Cosgrove, Daniel J (2017) Preparation of Onion Epidermal Cell Walls for Imaging by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). BIO-PROTOCOL 7(24): e2647.
  12. O’Neill, Hugh; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Petridis, Loukas; He, Junhong; Mamontov, Eugene; Hong, Liang; Urban, Volker; Evans, Barbara; Langan, Paul; Smith, Jeremy C; Davison, Brian H (2017) Dynamics of water bound to crystalline cellulose. Scientific Reports 7: 11840.
  13. Rui, Yue; Xiao, Chaowen; Yi, Hojae; Kandemir, Baris; Wang, James Z; Puri, Virendra M; Anderson, Charles T (2017) POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION3 Functions in Seedling Development, Rosette Growth, and Stomatal Dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana. The Plant Cell 29: 2413-2432.
  14. Phyo, Pyae; Wang, Tuo; Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T; Hong, Mei (2017) Effects of Pectin Molecular Weight Changes on the Structure, Dynamics, and Polysaccharide Interactions of Primary Cell Walls of Arabidopsis thaliana: Insights from Solid-State NMR. Biomacromolecules 18(9): 2937-2950.
  15. Norris, Joanna H; Li, Xingxing; Huang, Shixin; Van de Meene, Allison ML; Tran, Mai L; Killeavy, Erin; Chaves, Arielle M; Mallon, Bailey; Mercure, Danielle; Tan, Hwei-Ting; Burton, Rachel A; Doblin, Monika S; Kim, Seong H; Roberts, Alison W (2017) Functional specialization of cellulose synthase isoforms in a moss shows parallels with seed plants. Plant Physiology 175: 210-222.
  16. Cho, Sung Hyun; Purushotham, Pallinti;Fang, Chao; Maranas, Cassandra; Díaz-Moreno, Sara M; Bulone, Vincent; Zimmer, Jochen; Kumar, Manish; Nixon, B. Tracy (2017) Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Cellulose Microfibrils from Reconstituted Cellulose Synthase. Plant Physiology 175: 146-156.
  17. Zheng, YunZhen; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Ning, Gang (2017) High-Resolution Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) Imaging of Cellulose Microfibril Organization in Plant Primary Cell Walls. Microscopy and Microanalysis: 1-7. 
  18. Cosgrove, Daniel J (2017) Microbial Expansins. Annu Rev Microbiol 71: 479-497
  19. Chen, Xing; Lee, Christopher M; Wang, Hong-Fei; Lasse, Jensen; Kim, Seong H (2017) Vibrational Sum-Frequency-Generation (SFG) Spectroscopy of Bulk Materials Consisting of SFG active Nanocrystals: Experimental and Theoretical Study of Azimuth Angle and Polarization Dependences of SFG Spectral Features of Uniaxially-Aligned Cellulose Crystals. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part C 121(34): 18876-18886.
  20. Kafle, Kabindra; Yong Bum, Park; Lee, Christoper M; Stapleton, Joshua J; Kiemle, Sarah N; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Kim, Seong H (2017) Effects of mechanical stretching on average orientation of cellulose and pectin in onion epidermis cell wall: A polarized FT-IR study. Cellulose 24: 3145-3154.
  21. Goodell; Barry, Zhu, Yuan; Kim, Seong H; Kafle, Kabindra; Eastwood, Daniel; Daniel, Geoffrey; Jellison, Jody; Yoshida, Makoto; Groom, Leslie; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh (2017) Modification of the nanostructure of lignocellulose cell walls via a non-enzymatic lignocellulose deconstruction system in brown rot wood-decay fungi. Biotechnology for Biofuels 10:179.

  22. Ma, Ding; Lee, Christoper M; Chen, Yizhu; Mehta, Nikhil; Kim, Seong H; Liu, Zhiwen (2017) Vibrational sum frequency generation digital holography. Applied Physics Letters 110: 251601. Selected as an Editor's Pick!
  23. Zhang, Tian; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Durachko, Daniel M; Cosgrove, Daniel J (2017) Nanoscale Movements of Cellulose Microfibrils in Primary Cell Walls. Nature Plants 3: 17056
  24. Barnes, William J; and Anderson Charles T (2017) Acetyl Bromide Soluble Lignin (ABSL) Assay for Total Lignin Quantification from Plant Biomass. Bio-protocol 2017 7(5): e2149. DOI: 10.21769/BioProtoc.2149
  25. Makarem, Mohamadamin; Sawada, Daisuke; O'Neill, Hugh M; Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Yong Bum; Mittal, Ashutosh; Kim, Seong H (2017) Dependence of Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Spectral Features on the Mesoscale Arrangement of SFG-Active Crystalline Domains Interspersed in SFG-Inactive Matrix: A Case Study with Cellulose in Uniaxially Aligned Control Samples and Alkali-Treated Secondary Cell Walls in Plants. J. Phys. Chem. C 121(18): 10249-10257. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b02770
  26. Chae, Inseok; Ahmed, Saad; Atitallah, Hassene Ben; Luo, Jiawei; Wang, Qing; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Kim, Seong H (2017) Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Analysis of Ferroelectric Response of PVDF-Based Copolymer and Terpolymer. Macromolecules 50(7): 2838-2844.
  27. Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Christopher M; Dazen, Kevin; Delhom, Christopher D; Liu, Yongliang; Rodgers, James E; French, Alfred D; Kim, Seong H (2017) Comparative physical and chemical analyses of cotton fibers from two near isogenic upland lines differing in fiber wall thickness. Cellulose 24: 2385–2401.   DOI 10.1007/s10570-017-1282-1 
  28. Zamil, M Shafayet; Yi, Hojae; Puri, Virendra M (2017) A multiscale FEA framework for bridging cell-wall to tissue-scale mechanical properties: the contributions of middle lamella interface and cell shape. Journal of Materials Science 52 (13): 7947–7968. DOI: 10.1007/s10853-017-0999-4
  29. Marek, Antonin; Voinov, Maxim A; Smirnov, Alex I (2017) Spin Probe Multi-Frequency EPR Study of Unprocessed Cotton Fibers. Cell Biochem Biophys 75: 211.  DOI 10.1007/s12013-017-0787-4
  30. Xiao, Chaowen; Barnes, William J; Zamil, M Shafayet; Yi, Hojae; Puri, Virendra M; Anderson, Charles T (2017) Activation tagging of Arabidopsis POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION2 promotes hypocotyl elongation, leaf expansion, stem lignification, mechanical stiffening, and lodging. Plant Journal 89:   1159–1173 . DOI:
  31. Basu, Snehasish, Omadjela, Okako; Zimmer, Jochen; Catchmark, Jeffrey M (2017) Impact of plant matrix polysaccharides on cellulose produced by surface-tethered cellulose synthases.  Carbohydrate Polymers 162 (2017) 93–99   DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.01.005
  32. Lee, Christopher M; Chen, Xing; Weiss, Philip A; Jensen, Lasse; Kim, Seong H (2017) Quantum Mechanical Calculations of Vibrational Sum-Frequency-Generation (SFG) Spectra of Cellulose: Dependence of the CH and OH Peak Intensity on the Polarity of Cellulose Chains within the SFG Coherence Domain.  The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 8: 55-60.   DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.6b02624
  33. Vandavasi, Vandavasi Gopal; and O’Neill, Hugh (2016) Heterologous Expression and Purification of Catalytic Domain of CESA1 from Arabidopsis. Bio-protocol 6(20): e1965. DOI: 10.21769/BioProtoc.1965
  34. Wang, Bo; McClosky, Daniel D; Anderson, Charles T; Gong, Chen (2016) Synthesis of a suite of click-compatible sugar analogs for probing carbohydrate metabolism.  Carbohydrate Research 433: 54-62.  DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.07.012
  35. Xiao, Chaowen; and Anderson, Charles T (2016) Interconnections between cell wall polymers, wall mechanics, and cortical microtubules: Teasing out causes and consequences.  Article Addendum in Plant Signaling & Behavior 11(9): e1215396.  DOI:  10.1080/15592324.2016.1215396
  36. Wang, Tuo; Chen, Yuning; Tabuchi, Akira; Hong, Mei; and Cosgrove, Daniel (2016) The Target of β-Expansin EXPB1 in Maize Cell Walls from Binding and Solid-State NMR Studies. Plant Physiol. online ahead of print. DOI: 10.1104/pp.16.01311
  37. Pandey, Jyotsna L.; Kiemle, Sarah N; Richard, Tom L.; Zhu, Yimin; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Anderson, Charles T. (2016) Investigating Biochemical and Developmental Dependencies of Lignification with a Click-Compatible Monolignol Analog in Arabidopsis thaliana Stems. Front. Plant Sci., online ahead of print. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01309
  38. Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Zheng, Yunzhen; Xin, Xiaoran; Huang, Shixin; Kong, Zhaosheng; Kim, Seong H; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Gu, Ying (2016) Cellulose synthase complexes act in a concerted fashion to synthesize highly aggregated cellulose in secondary cell walls of plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(40): 11348-11353 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613273113
  39. Purushotham, Pallinti; Cho, Sung Hyun; Díaz-Moreno, Sara M; Kumar, Manish; Nixon, B. Tracy; Bulone, Vincent; and Zimmer, Jochen (2016) A single heterologously expressed plant cellulose synthase isoform is sufficient for cellulose microfibril formation in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(4): 11360-11365 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1606210113
  40. Wang, Tuo; Phyo, Pyae; and Hong, Mei (2016) Multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy of plant cell walls. Solid State Nucl. Magn. Reson. 78: 56-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssnmr.2016.08.001
  41. Ogawa, Yu; Lee, Christopher M; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; and Kim, Seong H (2016) Absence of Sum Frequency Generation in Support of Orthorhombic Symmetry of α-Chitin. Macromolecules 49(18): 7025-7031. DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.6b01583
  42. Haigler, Candace H.; Davis, Jonathan K.; Slabaugh, Erin; and Kubicki, James D (2016) Biosynthesis and assembly of cellulose. Molecular Cell Biology of the Growth and Differentiation of Plant Cells, online ahead of print. DOI: 10.1201/b20316
  43. Nixon, B. Tracy; Mansouri, Katayoun; Singh, Abhishek; Du, Juan; Davis, Jonathan K.; Lee, Jung-Goo; Slabaugh, Erin; Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; O'Neill, Hugh; Roberts, Eric M.; Roberts, Alison W.; Yingling, Yaroslava G.; and Haigler, Candace H. (2016) Comparative Structural and Computational Analysis Supports Eighteen Cellulose Synthases in the Plant Cellulose Synthesis Complex. Sci. Rep. 6: 28696. DOI: 10.1038/srep28696
  44. Du, Juan; Vepachedu, Venkata; Cho, Sung Hyun; Kumar, Manish; and Nixon, B. Tracy (2016) Structure of the Cellulose Synthase Complex of Gluconacetobacter hansenii at 23.4 Å Resolution. PLoS One 11(5): e0155886. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155886
  45. Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D; and Hong, Mei (2016) Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations. Biomacromolecules 17: 2210-2222. DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.6b00441
  46. Slabaugh, Erin; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; Chaves, Arielle M; Wilson, Liza; Wilson, Carmen; Davis, Jonathan K; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Anderson, Charles T; Roberts, Alison W; and Haigler, Candace H (2016) The valine and lysine residues in the conserved FxVTxK motif are important for the function of phylogenetically distant plant cellulose synthases. Glycobiology 26(5): 509-519. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwv118
  47. Tran, Mai L; and Roberts, Alison W (2015) Cellulose synthase (CESA) gene expression profiling of Physcomitrella patens. Plant Biol. (Berlin, Ger.) 18(3): 363-368. DOI: 10.1111/plb.12416
  48. McClosky, Daniel D; Wang, Bo; Chen, Gong; and Anderson, Charles T. (2016) The click-compatible sugar 6-deoxy-alkynyl glucose metabolically incorporates into Arabidopsis root hair tips and arrests their growth. Phytochemistry (Elsevier) 123: 16-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2016.01.007
  49. Berry, Elizabeth A; Tran, Mai L; Dimos, Christos S; Budziszek, Michael J; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; and Roberts, Alison W. (2016) Immuno and affinity cytochemical analysis of cell wall composition in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Front. Plant Sci. 7: 248. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00248
  50. Cellulose Journal cover Feb 2016Rui, Yue; and Anderson, Charles T (2016) Functional analysis of cellulose and xyloglucan in the walls of stomatal guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 170: 1398-1419. DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.01066
  51. Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Davis, Jonathan K; Slabaugh, Erin; Singh, Abhishek; Haigler, Candace H; and Yingling, Yaroslava G (2016) Prediction of the structures of the plant-specific regions of vascular plant cellulose synthases and correlated functional analysis. Cellulose 23(1): 145-161. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-015-0789-6 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the February 2016 issue of Cellulose
  52. Nagachar, Nivedita; and McManus, John B (2016) Microbial Cellulose Synthesis. Microbial Factories: Biofuels, Waste Treatment 1: 203-216. DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-2598-0
  53. Basu, Snehasish; Omadjela, Okako; Gaddes, David; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Zimmer, Jochen; and Catchmark, Jeffrey M (2016) Cellulose Microfibril Formation by Surface-Tethered Cellulose Synthase Enzymes. ACS Nano 10: 1896-1907. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b05648
  54. Plant Journal cover January 2016Cosgrove, Daniel (2016) Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening (2016) F1000Research 5: 119. DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.7180.1
  55. Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Yunzhen; and Cosgrove, Daniel J (2016) Spatial Organization of Cellulose Microfibrils and Matrix Polysaccharides in Primary Plant Cell Walls as Imaged by Multi-Channel Atomic Force Microscopy. Plant J. 85(2): 179-192. DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13102 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the January 2016 issue of The Plant Journal.
  56. Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Huang, Shixin; and Kim, Seong H (2016) Multimodal Broadband Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (MM-BB-V-SFG) Spectrometer and Microscope. J. Phys. Chem. B 120(1): 102-116. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b10290
  57. Cosgrove, Daniel J (2016) Plant cell wall extensibility: connecting plant cell growth with cell wall structure, mechanics, and the action of wallmodifying enzymes. J. Exp. Bot. 67(2): 463-476 (2016). DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv511
  58. Anderson, Charles T (2016) We be jammin’: an update on pectin biosynthesis, trafficking and dynamics. J. Exp. Bot. 67(2): 495-502. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv501
  59. Wang, Tuo; and Hong, Mei (2016) Solid-state NMR investigations of cellulose structure and interactions with matrix polysaccharides in plant primary cell walls. J. Exp. Bot. 67(2): 503-514. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv416
  60. Plant Physiology cover January 2016Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; Putnam, Daniel K; Zhang, Qiu; Petridis, Loukas; Heller, William T; Nixon, B. Tracy; Haigler, Candace H; Kalluri, Udaya; Coates, Leighton; Langan, Paul; Smith, Jeremy C; Meiler, Jens; and O'Neill, Hugh A (2016) Structural Study of CESA1 catalytic domain of Arabidopsis thaliana Cellulose Synthesis Complex: Evidence for CESA trimers. Plant Physiol. 170: 123-135. DOI: 10.​1104/​pp.​15.​01356 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the January 2016 issue of Plant Physiology.
  61. McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; and Tien, Ming (2016) AcsA–AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 82: 58-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2015.08.015
  62. Xiao, Chaowen; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Yunzhen; Cosgrove, Daniel J; and Anderson, Charles T (2016) Xyloglucan deficiency disrupts microtubule stability and cellulose biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, altering cell growth and morphogenesis. Plant Physiol. 170(1): 234-249. DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.01395
  63. Dumont, Marie; Lehner, Arnaud; Bardor, Muriel; Burel, Carole; Vauzeilles, Boris; Lerouxel, Olivier; Anderson, Charles T; Mollet, Jean-Claude; and Lerouge, Patrice (2015) Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall components by 2-fluoro 2-deoxy-L-fucose induces defects in root cell elongation. Plant J. 84(6): 1137-1151. DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13071
  64. Lee, Christopher M; Kubicki, James D; Fan, Bingxin; Zhong, Linghao; Jarvis, Michael C; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Hydrogen-Bonding Network and OH Stretch Vibration of Cellulose: Comparison of Computational Modeling with Polarized IR and SFG Spectra. J. Phys. Chem. B 119(49): 15138-15149. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b08015
  65. Li, Shundai; Lei, Lei; Yingling, Yaroslava G; and Gu, Ying (2015) Microtubules and cellulose biosynthesis: the emergence of new players. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 28: 76-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2015.09.002
  66. Cellulose Journal cover Dec 2015Park, Yong Bum; Kafle, Kabindra; Lee, Christopher M; Cosgrove, Daniel J; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Does cellulose II exist in native alga cell walls? Cellulose structure of Derbesia cell walls studied with SFG, IR and XRD. Cellulose 22(6): 3531-3540. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-015-0750-8 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the December 2015 issue of Cellulose.
  67. Erbakan, Mustafa; Curtis, Brandon S; Nixon, B. Tracy; Kumar, Manish; and Curtis, Wayne R (2015) Advancing Rhodobacter sphaeroides as a platform for expression of functional membrane proteins. Protein Expression Purif. 8(7): 1011-1023. DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2015.05.012
  68. Lee, Christopher M; Gu, Jin; Kafle, Kabindra; Catchmark, Jeffrey M; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strains ATCC 53524 and ATCC 23768: pellicle formation, post-synthesis aggregation and fiber density. Carbohydr. Polym. 133: 270-276. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.06.091
  69. Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Zhu, Xiaoyu; and Gu, Ying (2015) The TWD40-2 protein and the AP2 complex cooperate in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of cellulose synthase to regulate cellulose biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(41): 12870-12875. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1509292112
  70. Kafle, Kabindra; Shin, H; Lee, Christopher M; Park, Sunkyu; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Progressive structural changes of Avicel, bleached softwood, and bacterial cellulose during enzymatic hydrolysis. Sci. Rep. 5: 15102. DOI:10.1038/srep15102
  71. Lei, Lei; Singh, Abhishek; Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Yingling, Yaroslava G; and Gu, Ying (2015) CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE1 Is Required for Fast Recycling of Cellulose Synthase Complexes to the Plasma Membrane in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 27(10): 2926-2940. DOI: 10.​1105/​tpc.​15.​00442
  72. Zamil, M. Shafayet; Yi, Hojae; and Puri, Virendra M (2015)The mechanical properties of plant cell walls soft material at the subcellular scale: the implications of water and of the intercellular boundaries. J. Mater. Sci. 50(20): 6608-6623. DOI: 10.1007/s10853-015-9204-9
  73. Bi, Yunchen; Hubbard, Caitlin; Purushotham, Pallinti; and Zimmer, Jochen (2015) Insights into the structure and function of membrane-integrated processive glycosyltransferases. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 34: 78-86. DOI: 10.1016/
  74. Cho, Sung Hyun; Du, Juan; Sines, Ian; Poosarla, Venkata Giridhar; Vepachedu, Venkata; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Yong Bum; Kim, Seong H; Kumar, Manish; and Nixon, B. Tracy (2015) In vitro synthesis of cellulose microfibrils by membrane protein from protoplasts of the non-vascular plant Physcomitrella patens. Biochem. J. 470(2): 195-205. DOI: 10.1042/BJ20141391
  75. Lee, Christopher M; Dazen, Kevin; Kafle, Kabindra; Moore, Andrew; Johnson, David K; Park, Sunkyu; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Correlations of Apparent Cellulose Crystallinity Determined by XRD, NMR, IR, Raman, and SFG Methods. Adv. Polym. Sci., 1-17. DOI: 10.1007/12_2015_320
  76. Erbakan, Mustafa; Curtis, Brandon S; Nixon, B. Tracy; Kumar, Manish; and Curtis, Wayne R (2015) Advancing Rhodobacter sphaeroides as a platform for expression of functional membrane proteins. Protein Expression Purif. 8(7): 1011-1023. DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2015.05.012
  77. Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Hong, Mei (2015) Cellulose-Pectin Spatial Contacts Are Inherent to Never-Dried Arabidopsis thaliana Primary Cell Walls: Evidence from Solid-State NMR. Plant Physiol. 168 (3): 871-884. DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.00665
  78. Kong, Zhaosheng; Ioki, Motohide; Braybrook, Siobhan; Li, Shundai; Ye, Zheng-Ha; Lee, Yuh-Ru Julie; Hotta, Takashi; Chang, Anny; Tian, Juan; Wang, Guangda; and Liu, Bo (2015) Kinesin-4 functions in vesicular transport on cortical microtubules and regulates cell wall mechanics during cell elongation in plants. Mol. Plant 8(7): 1011-1023. DOI: 10.1016/j.molp.2015.01.004
  79. Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; Chaves, Arielle M; and Roberts, Alison W (2015) A complementation assay for in vivo protein structure/function analysis in Physcomitrella patens (Funariaceae). Appl. Plant Sci. 3(7): 1500023. DOI: 10.3732/apps.1500023
  80. McNamara, Joshua T; Morgan, Jacob LW; and Zimmer, Jochen (2015) A Molecular Description of Cellulose Biosynthesis. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 84, 895-921. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-060614-033930
  81. Yang, Hui; Zimmer, Jochen; Yingling, Yaroslava G; and Kubicki, James D (2015) How Cellulose Elongates - a QM/MM Study of the Molecular Mechanism of Cellulose Polymerization in Bacterial CESA. J. Phys. Chem. B 119 (22): 6525–6535. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b01433
  82. Pandey, Jyotsna L.; Wang, Bo; Diehl, Brett G.; Richard, Tom L; Chen, Gong; and Anderson, Charles T (2015) A Versatile Click-Compatible Monolignol Probe to Study Lignin Deposition in Plant Cell Walls. PLoS One 10(4): e0121334. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121334
  83. Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Belias, David; Park, Yong Bum; Glick, Richard E; Haigler, Candace H; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Comprehensive analysis of cellulose content, crystallinity, and lateral packing in Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense cotton fibers using sum frequency generation, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Cellulose 22 (2): 971-989. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0535-5
  84. Nili, Abdolmajid; Yi, Hojae; Crespi, Vincent H; and Puri, Virendra M (2015) Examination of biological hotspot hypothesis of primary cell wall using a computational cell wall network model. Cellulose 22: 1027-1038. DOI 10.1007/s10570-015-0568-4
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