Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation

Our Research

The Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation (CLSF) is focused on developing a detailed understanding of lignocellulose, the main structural material in plants.

Perspective

Every living organism on Earth uses glucose as an energy source. Plants not only make glucose from sunlight, water and CO2, but they convert much of it into an energy-rich material – the lignocellulosic cell wall – that is both a versatile material and a recalcitrant feedstock for liquid biofuel production, both properties stemming from its hierarchical structure at the nano- to mesoscales. Our research addresses key questions in plant biology: by understanding the fundamental science of how plants manufacture lignocellulose, we may devise new ways to control it (through genetic engineering) and transform it (through chemical engineering) for improved technologies to supply our energy and material needs for a sustainable future.

Research Plan and Direction

CLSF researchers investigate:

These manufacturing processes, practiced by nearly every plant cell, greatly exceed the current capabilities of human technologies. The goals of the CLSF are to develop a detailed nano- to meso-scale understanding of plant cell walls, from glucose polymerization and glucan crystallization into cellulose microfibrils to the orderly hierarchical assembly of the components to form the mature plant cell wall. Success in our research goals will offer many lessons in how to create such hierarchical structures, how to vary and manipulate them, and potentially how to disassemble them more efficiently than is currently possible. Our team of accomplished biological, physical and computational researchers with their diverse technical expertise and team collaboration work towards these goals which straddle biology and physics.

Research Highlights

More information

Publications

  1. Wang, Tuo; Chen, Yuning; Tabuchi, Akira; Hong, Mei; and Cosgrove, Daniel (2016) The Target of β-Expansin EXPB1 in Maize Cell Walls from Binding and Solid-State NMR Studies. Plant Physiol. online ahead of print. DOI: 10.1104/pp.16.01311
  2. Pandey, Jyotsna L.; Kiemle, Sarah N; Richard, Tom L.; Zhu, Yimin; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Anderson, Charles T. (2016) Investigating Biochemical and Developmental Dependencies of Lignification with a Click-Compatible Monolignol Analog in Arabidopsis thaliana Stems. Front. Plant Sci., online ahead of print. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01309
  3. Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Zheng, Yunzhen; Xin, Xiaoran; Huang, Shixin; Kong, Zhaosheng; Kim, Seong H; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Gu, Ying (2016) Cellulose synthase complexes act in a concerted fashion to synthesize highly aggregated cellulose in secondary cell walls of plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(40): 11348-11353 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613273113
  4. Purushotham, Pallinti; Cho, Sung Hyun; Díaz-Moreno, Sara M; Kumar, Manish; Nixon, B. Tracy; Bulone, Vincent; and Zimmer, Jochen (2016) A single heterologously expressed plant cellulose synthase isoform is sufficient for cellulose microfibril formation in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(4): 11360-11365 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1606210113
  5. Wang, Tuo; Phyo, Pyae; and Hong, Mei (2016) Multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy of plant cell walls. Solid State Nucl. Magn. Reson. 78: 56-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssnmr.2016.08.001
  6. Ogawa, Yu; Lee, Christopher M; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; and Kim, Seong H (2016) Absence of Sum Frequency Generation in Support of Orthorhombic Symmetry of α-Chitin. Macromolecules 49(18): 7025-7031. DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.6b01583
  7. Haigler, Candace H.; Davis, Jonathan K.; Slabaugh, Erin; and Kubicki, James D (2016) Biosynthesis and assembly of cellulose. Molecular Cell Biology of the Growth and Differentiation of Plant Cells, online ahead of print. DOI: 10.1201/b20316
  8. Nixon, B. Tracy; Mansouri, Katayoun; Singh, Abhishek; Du, Juan; Davis, Jonathan K.; Lee, Jung-Goo; Slabaugh, Erin; Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; O'Neill, Hugh; Roberts, Eric M.; Roberts, Alison W.; Yingling, Yaroslava G.; and Haigler, Candace H. (2016) Comparative Structural and Computational Analysis Supports Eighteen Cellulose Synthases in the Plant Cellulose Synthesis Complex. Sci. Rep. 6: 28696. DOI: 10.1038/srep28696
  9. Du, Juan; Vepachedu, Venkata; Cho, Sung Hyun; Kumar, Manish; and Nixon, B. Tracy (2016) Structure of the Cellulose Synthase Complex of Gluconacetobacter hansenii at 23.4 Å Resolution. PLoS One 11(5): e0155886. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155886
  10. Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D; and Hong, Mei (2016) Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations. Biomacromolecules 17: 2210-2222. DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.6b00441
  11. Slabaugh, Erin; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; Chaves, Arielle M; Wilson, Liza; Wilson, Carmen; Davis, Jonathan K; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Anderson, Charles T; Roberts, Alison W; and Haigler, Candace H (2016) The valine and lysine residues in the conserved FxVTxK motif are important for the function of phylogenetically distant plant cellulose synthases. Glycobiology 26(5): 509-519. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwv118
  12. Tran, Mai L; and Roberts, Alison W (2015) Cellulose synthase (CESA) gene expression profiling of Physcomitrella patens. Plant Biol. (Berlin, Ger.) 18(3): 363-368. DOI: 10.1111/plb.12416
  13. McClosky, Daniel D; Wang, Bo; Chen, Gong; and Anderson, Charles T. (2016) The click-compatible sugar 6-deoxy-alkynyl glucose metabolically incorporates into Arabidopsis root hair tips and arrests their growth. Phytochemistry (Elsevier) 123: 16-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2016.01.007
  14. Berry, Elizabeth A; Tran, Mai L; Dimos, Christos S; Budziszek, Michael J; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; and Roberts, Alison W. (2016) Immuno and affinity cytochemical analysis of cell wall composition in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Front. Plant Sci. 7: 248. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00248
  15. Cellulose Journal cover Feb 2016Rui, Yue; and Anderson, Charles T (2016) Functional analysis of cellulose and xyloglucan in the walls of stomatal guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 170: 1398-1419. DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.01066
  16. Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Davis, Jonathan K; Slabaugh, Erin; Singh, Abhishek; Haigler, Candace H; and Yingling, Yaroslava G (2016) Prediction of the structures of the plant-specific regions of vascular plant cellulose synthases and correlated functional analysis. Cellulose 23(1): 145-161. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-015-0789-6 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the February 2016 issue of Cellulose
  17. Nagachar, Nivedita; and McManus, John B (2016) Microbial Cellulose Synthesis. Microbial Factories: Biofuels, Waste Treatment 1: 203-216. DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-2598-0
  18. Basu, Snehasish; Omadjela, Okako; Gaddes, David; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Zimmer, Jochen; and Catchmark, Jeffrey M (2016) Cellulose Microfibril Formation by Surface-Tethered Cellulose Synthase Enzymes. ACS Nano 10: 1896-1907. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b05648
  19. Plant Journal cover January 2016Cosgrove, Daniel Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening (2016) F1000Research 5: 119. DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.7180.1
  20. Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Yunzhen; and Cosgrove, Daniel J (2016) Spatial Organization of Cellulose Microfibrils and Matrix Polysaccharides in Primary Plant Cell Walls as Imaged by Multi-Channel Atomic Force Microscopy. Plant J. 85(2): 179-192. DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13102 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the January 2016 issue of The Plant Journal.
  21. Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Huang, Shixin; and Kim, Seong H (2016) Multimodal Broadband Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (MM-BB-V-SFG) Spectrometer and Microscope. J. Phys. Chem. B 120(1): 102-116. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b10290
  22. Cosgrove, Daniel J (2016) Plant cell wall extensibility: connecting plant cell growth with cell wall structure, mechanics, and the action of wallmodifying enzymes. J. Exp. Bot. 67(2): 463-476 (2016). DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv511
  23. Anderson, Charles T (2016) We be jammin’: an update on pectin biosynthesis, trafficking and dynamics. J. Exp. Bot. 67(2): 495-502. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv501
  24. Wang, Tuo; and Hong, Mei (2016) Solid-state NMR investigations of cellulose structure and interactions with matrix polysaccharides in plant primary cell walls. J. Exp. Bot. 67(2): 503-514. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv416
  25. Plant Physiology cover January 2016Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; Putnam, Daniel K; Zhang, Qiu; Petridis, Loukas; Heller, William T; Nixon, B. Tracy; Haigler, Candace H; Kalluri, Udaya; Coates, Leighton; Langan, Paul; Smith, Jeremy C; Meiler, Jens; and O'Neill, Hugh A (2016) Structural Study of CESA1 catalytic domain of Arabidopsis thaliana Cellulose Synthesis Complex: Evidence for CESA trimers. Plant Physiol. 170: 123-135. DOI: 10.​1104/​pp.​15.​01356 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the January 2016 issue of Plant Physiology.
  26. McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; and Tien, Ming (2016) AcsA–AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 82: 58-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2015.08.015
  27. Xiao, Chaowen; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Yunzhen; Cosgrove, Daniel J; and Anderson, Charles T (2016) Xyloglucan deficiency disrupts microtubule stability and cellulose biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, altering cell growth and morphogenesis. Plant Physiol. 170(1): 234-249. DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.01395
  28. Dumont, Marie; Lehner, Arnaud; Bardor, Muriel; Burel, Carole; Vauzeilles, Boris; Lerouxel, Olivier; Anderson, Charles T; Mollet, Jean-Claude; and Lerouge, Patrice (2015) Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall components by 2-fluoro 2-deoxy-L-fucose induces defects in root cell elongation. Plant J. 84(6): 1137-1151. DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13071
  29. Lee, Christopher M; Kubicki, James D; Fan, Bingxin; Zhong, Linghao; Jarvis, Michael C; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Hydrogen-Bonding Network and OH Stretch Vibration of Cellulose: Comparison of Computational Modeling with Polarized IR and SFG Spectra. J. Phys. Chem. B 119(49): 15138-15149. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b08015
  30. Li, Shundai; Lei, Lei; Yingling, Yaroslava G; and Gu, Ying (2015) Microtubules and cellulose biosynthesis: the emergence of new players. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 28: 76-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2015.09.002
  31. Cellulose Journal cover Dec 2015Park, Yong Bum; Kafle, Kabindra; Lee, Christopher M; Cosgrove, Daniel J; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Does cellulose II exist in native alga cell walls? Cellulose structure of Derbesia cell walls studied with SFG, IR and XRD. Cellulose 22(6): 3531-3540. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-015-0750-8 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the December 2015 issue of Cellulose.
  32. Erbakan, Mustafa; Curtis, Brandon S; Nixon, B. Tracy; Kumar, Manish; and Curtis, Wayne R (2015) Advancing Rhodobacter sphaeroides as a platform for expression of functional membrane proteins. Protein Expression Purif. 8(7): 1011-1023. DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2015.05.012
  33. Lee, Christopher M; Gu, Jin; Kafle, Kabindra; Catchmark, Jeffrey M; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strains ATCC 53524 and ATCC 23768: pellicle formation, post-synthesis aggregation and fiber density. Carbohydr. Polym. 133: 270-276. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.06.091
  34. Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Zhu, Xiaoyu; and Gu, Ying (2015) The TWD40-2 protein and the AP2 complex cooperate in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of cellulose synthase to regulate cellulose biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(41): 12870-12875. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1509292112
  35. Kafle, Kabindra; Shin, H; Lee, Christopher M; Park, Sunkyu; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Progressive structural changes of Avicel, bleached softwood, and bacterial cellulose during enzymatic hydrolysis. Sci. Rep. 5: 15102. DOI:10.1038/srep15102
  36. Lei, Lei; Singh, Abhishek; Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Yingling, Yaroslava G; and Gu, Ying (2015) CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE1 Is Required for Fast Recycling of Cellulose Synthase Complexes to the Plasma Membrane in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 27(10): 2926-2940. DOI: 10.​1105/​tpc.​15.​00442
  37. Zamil, M. Shafayet; Yi, Hojae; and Puri, Virendra M (2015)The mechanical properties of plant cell walls soft material at the subcellular scale: the implications of water and of the intercellular boundaries. J. Mater. Sci. 50(20): 6608-6623. DOI: 10.1007/s10853-015-9204-9
  38. Bi, Yunchen; Hubbard, Caitlin; Purushotham, Pallinti; and Zimmer, Jochen (2015) Insights into the structure and function of membrane-integrated processive glycosyltransferases. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 34: 78-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbi.2015.07.008
  39. Cho, Sung Hyun; Du, Juan; Sines, Ian; Poosarla, Venkata Giridhar; Vepachedu, Venkata; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Yong Bum; Kim, Seong H; Kumar, Manish; and Nixon, B. Tracy (2015) In vitro synthesis of cellulose microfibrils by membrane protein from protoplasts of the non-vascular plant Physcomitrella patens. Biochem. J. 470(2): 195-205. DOI: 10.1042/BJ20141391
  40. Lee, Christopher M; Dazen, Kevin; Kafle, Kabindra; Moore, Andrew; Johnson, David K; Park, Sunkyu; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Correlations of Apparent Cellulose Crystallinity Determined by XRD, NMR, IR, Raman, and SFG Methods. Adv. Polym. Sci., 1-17. DOI: 10.1007/12_2015_320
  41. Erbakan, Mustafa; Curtis, Brandon S; Nixon, B. Tracy; Kumar, Manish; and Curtis, Wayne R (2015) Advancing Rhodobacter sphaeroides as a platform for expression of functional membrane proteins. Protein Expression Purif. 8(7): 1011-1023. DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2015.05.012
  42. Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Hong, Mei (2015) Cellulose-Pectin Spatial Contacts Are Inherent to Never-Dried Arabidopsis thaliana Primary Cell Walls: Evidence from Solid-State NMR. Plant Physiol. 168 (3): 871-884. DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.00665
  43. Kong, Zhaosheng; Ioki, Motohide; Braybrook, Siobhan; Li, Shundai; Ye, Zheng-Ha; Lee, Yuh-Ru Julie; Hotta, Takashi; Chang, Anny; Tian, Juan; Wang, Guangda; and Liu, Bo (2015) Kinesin-4 functions in vesicular transport on cortical microtubules and regulates cell wall mechanics during cell elongation in plants. Mol. Plant 8(7): 1011-1023. DOI: 10.1016/j.molp.2015.01.004
  44. Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; Chaves, Arielle M; and Roberts, Alison W (2015) A complementation assay for in vivo protein structure/function analysis in Physcomitrella patens (Funariaceae). Appl. Plant Sci. 3(7): 1500023. DOI: 10.3732/apps.1500023
  45. McNamara, Joshua T; Morgan, Jacob LW; and Zimmer, Jochen (2015) A Molecular Description of Cellulose Biosynthesis. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 84, 895-921. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-060614-033930
  46. Yang, Hui; Zimmer, Jochen; Yingling, Yaroslava G; and Kubicki, James D (2015) How Cellulose Elongates - a QM/MM Study of the Molecular Mechanism of Cellulose Polymerization in Bacterial CESA. J. Phys. Chem. B 119 (22): 6525–6535. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b01433
  47. Pandey, Jyotsna L.; Wang, Bo; Diehl, Brett G.; Richard, Tom L; Chen, Gong; and Anderson, Charles T (2015) A Versatile Click-Compatible Monolignol Probe to Study Lignin Deposition in Plant Cell Walls. PLoS One 10(4): e0121334. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121334
  48. Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Belias, David; Park, Yong Bum; Glick, Richard E; Haigler, Candace H; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Comprehensive analysis of cellulose content, crystallinity, and lateral packing in Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense cotton fibers using sum frequency generation, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Cellulose 22 (2): 971-989. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0535-5
  49. Nili, Abdolmajid; Yi, Hojae; Crespi, Vincent H; and Puri, Virendra M (2015) Examination of biological hotspot hypothesis of primary cell wall using a computational cell wall network model. Cellulose 22: 1027-1038. DOI 10.1007/s10570-015-0568-4
  50. Johnson, Quentin R; Lindsay, Richard J; Petridis, Loukas; and Shen, Tongye (2015) Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation. Molecules 20(5): 7700-7718. DOI: 10.3390/molecules20057700
  51. Kapp, Nikki; Barnes, William J; Richard, Tom L; and Anderson, Charles T (2015) Imaging with the fluorogenic dye Basic Fuchsin reveals subcellular patterning and ecotype variation of lignification in Brachypodium distachyon. J. Exp. Bot. 66 (14): 4295-4304. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv158
  52. Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Fang, Lin; Luan, Xin; Catchmark, Jeffrey M; Tien, Ming; and Kao, Teh-hui (2015) Isolation and Characterization of Two Cellulose Morphology Mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769 Producing Cellulose with Lower Crystallinity. PLoS One, 10 (3), e0119504. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119504
  53. Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I; McClosky, Daniel D; Anderson, Charles T; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A; Okamoto, Ruth; and Dixit, Ram (2015) The Fragile Fiber1 kinesin contributes to cortical microtubule-mediated trafficking of cell wall components. Plant Physiol. 167: 780-792. DOI: 10.​1104/​pp.​114.​251462
  54. Park, Yong Bum; and Cosgrove, Daniel (2015) Xyloglucan and its interactions with other components of the growing cell wall. Plant Cell Physiol. 56 (2): 180-194. DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcu204
  55. Fan, Bingxin; and Maranas, Janna K (2015) Coarse-Grained Simulation of Cellulose Iβ with Application to Long Fibrils. Cellulose 22: 31-44. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0481-2
  56. Bashline, Logan; and Gu, Ying (2015) Using the Split-Ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid systems to test protein-protein interactions of transmembrane proteins. Methods Mol. Biol. (N. Y., NY, U. S.) 1242: 143-158. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1902-4_13
  57. Kim, Keekyoung; Yi, Hojae; Zamil, M Shafayet; Haque, M. Aman; and Puri, Virendra M (2015) Multiscale stress-strain characterization of outer onion epidermal peel tissue in wet and dry states. Am. J. Bot. 102: 12-20. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1400273
  58. Fang, Lin; and Catchmark, Jeffrey M (2015) Characterization of cellulose and other exopolysaccharides produced from Gluconacetobacter strains. Carbohydr. Polym. 115: 663-669. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.09.028
  59. Xi, Xiaoning; Kim, Seong H; and Tittmann, Bernhard (2015) Atomic force microscopy based nanoindentation study of onion abaxial epidermis walls in aqueous environment. J. Appl. Phys. 117: 024703. [DOI: 10.1063/1.4906094
  60. Fang, Lin; and Catchmark, Jeffrey M (2014) Characterization of water-soluble exopolysaccharides from Gluconacetobacter xylinus and their impacts on bacterial cellulose crystallization and ribbon assembly. Celulose 21: 3965-3978. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0443-8
  61. Fang, Lin; and Catchmark, Jeffrey M (2014) Structure characterization of native cellulose during dehydration and rehydration. Cellulose 21: 3951-3963. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0435-8
  62. Shklyaev, Oleg E; Kubicki, James D; Watts, Heath D; and Crespi, Vincent H (2014) Constraints on Iβ cellulose twist from DFT calculations of 13C NMR chemical shifts. Cellulose 21: 3979-3991. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0448-3
  63. Cosgrove, Daniel (2014) Re-constructing our models of cellulose and primary cell wall assembly. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 22: 122-131. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2014.11.001
  64. Hill, Joseph Lee; Hammudi, Mustafa B; and Tien, Ming (2014) The Arabidopsis Cellulose Synthase Complex: A Proposed Hexamer of CESA Trimers in an Equimolar Stoichiometry. Plant Cell 26: 4834-4842. DOI: 10.​1105/​tpc.​114.​131193
  65. Xiao, Chaowen; and Anderson, Charles T (2014) Activation Tag Screening for Cell Expansion Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods Mol. Biol. (N. Y.) 1242: 159-171. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1902-4_14
  66. Bukowski, Natalie; Pandey, Jyotsna L; Doyle, Lucas; Richard, Tom L; Anderson, Charles T; and Zhu, Yimin (2014) Development of a Clickable Designer Monolignol for Interrogation of Lignification in Plant Cell Walls. Bioconjugate Chem. 25 (12): 2189–2196. DOI: 10.1021/bc500411u
  67. Kafle, Kabindra; Greeson, Kenneth; Lee, Christopher M; and Kim, Seong H (2014) Cellulose polymorphs and physical properties of cotton fabrics processed with commercial textile mills for mercerization and liquid ammonia treatments. Text. Res. J. epub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1177/0040517514527379
  68. Petridis, Loukas; O'Neill, Hugh M; Johnsen, Mariah; Fan, Bingxin; Schulze, Roland K; Mamontov, E; Maranas, Janna K; Langan, Paul; and Smith, Jeremy C (2014) Hydration Control of the Mechanical and Dynamical Properties of Cellulose. Biomacromolecules 15: 4152–4159. DOI: 10.1021/bm5011849
  69. Slabaugh, Erin; Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Xiao, Chaowen; Amick, Joshua; Anderson, Charles T; Haigler, Candace H; and Yingling, Yaroslava G (2014) Computational and genetic evidence that different structural conformations of a non-catalytic region affect the function of plant cellulose synthase. J. Exp. Bot. 65: 6645-6653. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/eru383
  70. Tittmann, Bernhard; and Xi, Xiaoning (2014) Imaging and quantitative data acquisition of biological cell walls with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy Microscopy Book Series #6: “Microscopy: advances in scientific research and education” 2: 161-172. DOI: 10.2172/1158577
  71. Kafle, Kabindra; Shi, Rui; Lee, Christopher M; Mittal, Ashutosh; Park, Yong Bum; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Park, Sunkyu; Chiang, Vincent; and Kim, Seong H (2014) Vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy study of the structural assembly of cellulose microfibrils in reaction woods. Cellulose 21: 2219-2231. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0322-3
  72. White, Paul B; Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Hong, Mei (2014) Water – Polysaccharide Interactions in the Primary Cell Wall of Arabidopsis thaliana from Polarization Transfer Solid-State NMR. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136: 10399-10409. DOI: 10.1021/ja504108h
  73. Lei, Lei; Zhang, Tian; Strasser, Richard; Lee, Christopher M; Gonneau, Martine; Mach, Lukas; Vernhettes, Samantha; Kim, Seong H; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Li, Shundai; and Gu, Ying (2014)The jiaoyao1 Mutant Is an Allele of korrigan1 That Abolishes Endoglucanase Activity and Affects the Organization of Both Cellulose Microfibrils and Microtubules in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 26: 2601–2616. DOI: 10.​1105/​tpc.​114.​126193
  74. Diehl, Brett G; Watts, Heath D; Kubicki, James D; Regner, Matthew R; Ralph, John; and Brown, Nicole Robitaille (2014) Towards lignin-protein crosslinking: amino acid adducts of a lignin model quinone methide. Cellulose 21: 1395-1407. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0181-y
  75. Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Sunkyu; Cosgrove, Daniel J; and Kim, Seong H (2014) Effects of Plant Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharides on Bacterial Cellulose Structure Studied with Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy and X‑ray Diffraction. Biomacromolecules 15: 2718-2724. DOI: 10.1021/bm500567v
  76. Tittmann, Bernhard; Maghsoudy-Louyeh, Sahar; Kim, Jeong; and Xi, Xiaoning (2014) Imaging of Biological Nano-Composite Plant Cell Wall at the Micro- and Nano-Scales. Nondestr. Charact. Mater. XIII, Proc. Int. Symp. 13th. 19: 4.
  77. Zamil, M. Shafayet; Yi, Hojae; and Puri, Virendra M (2014) Mechanical characterization of onion outer epidermal middle lamella under tensile loading. Am. J. Bot. 101(5). DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1300416
  78. Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Yong Bum; and Kim, Seong H (2014) Probing crystal structure and mesoscale assembly of cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls, tunicate tests, and bacterial films using vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16: 10844-10853. DOI: 10.1039/C4CP00515E
  79. Kubicki, James D; Watts, Heath D; Zhao, Zhen; and Zhong, Linghao (2014) Quantum Mechanical Calculations on Cellulose-Water Interactions: Structures, Energetics, Vibrational Frequencies and NMR Chemical Shifts for Surfaces of Iα and Iβ Cellulose. Cellulose 21: 909-926. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-013-0029-x
  80. Zhang, Tian; Mahgsoudy-Louyeh, Sahar; Tittmann, Bernhard; and Cosgrove, Daniel (2014) Visualization of the nanoscale pattern of recently-deposited cellulose microfibrils and matrix materials in never-dried primary walls of the onion epidermis. Cellulose 21: 853-862. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-013-9996-1
  81. Haigler, Candace H; Grimson, Mark J; Gervais, Julien; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Ho¨fte, Herman; Monasse, Bernard; and Navard, Patrick (2014) Molecular Modeling and Imaging of Initial Stages of Cellulose Fibril Assembly: Evidence for a Disordered Intermediate Stage. PLoS One 9(4), e93981. Open access: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0093981
  82. Kafle, Kabindra; Xi, Xiaoning; Lee, Christopher M; Tittmann, Bernhard; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Park, Yong Bum; and Kim, Seong H (2014) Cellulose microfibril orientation in onion (Allium cepa L.) epidermis studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. Cellulose 21: 1075-1086. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-013-0121-2
  83. Zhao, Zhen; Crespi, Vincent H; Kubicki, James D; Cosgrove, Daniel J; and Zhong, Linghao (2014) Molecular dynamics simulation study of xyloglucan adsorption on cellulose surfaces: effects of surface hydrophobicity and side-chain variation. Cellulose 21: 1025-1039. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-013-0041-1
  84. McCarthy, Thomas W; Der, Joshua P; Honaas, Loren A; dePamphilis, Claude W; and Anderson, Charles T (2014) Phylogenetic analysis of pectin-related gene families in Physcomitrella patens and nine other plant species yields evolutionary insights into cell walls. BMC Plant Biol. 14: 79. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-14-79
  85. Xiao, Chaowen; Somerville, Chris R; and Anderson, Charles T (2014) POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION1 Functions in Cell Elongation and Flower Development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 26: 1018-1035. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.114.123968
  86. Kiemle, Sarah N; Zhang, Xiao; Esker, Alan R; Toriz, Guillermo; Gatenholm, Paul; and Cosgrove, Daniel J (2014) Role of (1,3)(1,4)-β-Glucan in Cell Walls: Interaction with Cellulose Biomacromolecules epub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1021/bm5001247
  87. Slabaugh, Erin; Davis, Jonathan K; Haigler, Candace H; Yingling, Yaroslava G; and Zimmer, Jochen (2014) Cellulose synthases: new insights from crystallography and modeling. Trends Plant Sci. 19: 99-106. DOI: 10.1016/j.tplants.2013.09.009
  88. Yi, Hojae; and Puri, Virendra M (2014) Contributions of the mechanical properties of major structural polysaccharides to the stiffness of a primary cell wall network model. Am. J. Bot. 101: 1-11. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1300315
  89. Gu,Jin; and Catchmark, Jeffrey M (2014) Roles of xyloglucan and pectin on the mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose composite films. Cellulose 21: 275-289. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-013-0115-0
  90. Wang, Chao; and Esker, Alan R (2014) Nanocrystalline chitin thin films. Carbohydr. Polym. 102: 151-158. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.10.103
  91. Watts, Heath; Mohamed, Mohamed Naseer Ali; and Kubicki, James D (2014) A DFT study of vibrational frequencies and ¹³C NMR chemical shifts of model cellulosic fragments as a function of size. Cellulose 21 (1): 53-70. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-013-0128-8
  92. Kong, Lingyan; Lee, Christopher M; Kim, Seong H; and Ziegler, Gregory R (2013) Characterization of starch polymorphic structures using vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy J. Phys. Chem. B 118 (7): 1775–1783. DOI: 10.1021/jp411130n
  93. Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Xiao, Chaowen; Tien, Ming; and Kao, Teh-hui (2013) Identification and characterization of non-cellulose-producing mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii generated by Tn5 transposon mutagenesis. J. Bacteriol. 195: 5072-5083. DOI: 10.1128/JB.00767-13
  94. Cong, Fang; Diehl, Brett G; Hill, Joseph Lee; Brown, Nicole Robitaille; and Tien, Ming (2013) Covalent bond formation between amino acids and lignin: Cross coupling between proteins and lignin. Phytochemistry 96: 449-456. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.09.012
  95. Xi, Xiaoning; Li, Xin; Miyasaka, C; Kropf, Matthew; and Tittmann, Bernhard (2013) High frequency scanning acoustic microscopy as diagnostic tool in tissue science. J. Biotechnol. Biomater. 3(3): 1000160. DOI: 10.4172/2155-952X.1000160
  96. Omadjela, Okako; Narahari, Adishesh; Strumillo, Joanna; Mélida, Hugo; Mazur, Olga; Bulone, Vincent; and Zimmer, Jochen (2013) BcsA and BcsB form the catalytically active core of bacterial cellulose synthase sufficient for in vitro cellulose synthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110: 17856-17861. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1314063110
  97. Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Christopher M; Koo, Bon-Wook; Park, Sunkyu; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Kim, Seong H (2013) Monitoring meso-scale ordering of cellulose in intact plant cell walls using sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. Plant Physiol. 163: 907-913. DOI: 10.1104/pp.113.225235
  98. Kim, Seong H; Lee, Christopher M; and Kafle, Kabindra (2013) Characterization of crystalline cellulose in biomass: Basic principles, applications, and limitations of XRD, NMR, IR, Raman, and SFG. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 30: 2127-2141. DOI: 10.1007/s11814-013-0162-0
  99. Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Caporini, Marc A; Rosay, Melanie; Zhong, Linghao; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Hong, Mei (2013) Sensitivity-enhanced solid-state NMR detection of expansin’s target in plant cell walls. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110: 16444–16449. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1316290110
  100. Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Anderson, Charles T; Lei, Lei; and Gu, Ying (2013) The Endocytosis of Cellulose Synthase in Arabidopsis Is Dependent on μ2, a Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis Adaptin. Plant Physiology 163: 150-160. Open access: www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/doi/10.1104/pp.113.221234
  101. Wang, Chao; Qian, Chen; Roman, Maren; Glasser, Wolfgang; and Esker, Alan R (2013) Surface-Initiated Dehydrogenative Polymerization of Monolignols: A Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring and Atomic Force Microscopy Study. Biomacromolecules 14: 3964−3972. DOI: 10.1021/bm401084h
  102. Kubicki, James D; Mohamed, Mohamed Naseer Ali; and Watts, Heath D (2013) Quantum mechanical modeling of the structures, energetics and spectral properties of Iα and Iβ cellulose. Cellulose 20: 9-23. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-012-9838-6
  103. Handakumbura, Pubudu P; Matos, Dominick A; Osmont, Karen S; Harrington, Michael J; Heo, Kyuyoung; Kafle, Kabindra; Kim, Seong H; Baskin, Tobias I; and Hazen, Samuel P (2013) Perturbation of Brachypodium distachyon CELLULOSE SYNTHASE A4 or 7 results in abnormal cell walls. BMC Plant Biol. 13: 131. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-13-131
  104. Wang C, Kittle JD, Qian C, Roman M, Esker AR (2013) Chitinase Activity on Amorphous Chitin Thin Films: A Quartz CrystalMicrobalance with Dissipation Monitoring and Atomic Force Microscopy Study. BioMacromolecules 14: 2622-2628. DOI: 10.1021/bm4004833
  105. Gu J and Catchmark J (2013) The impact of cellulose structure on binding interactions with hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-013-9965-8
  106. Schultink A, Cheng K, Park YB, Cosgrove DJ, Pauly M (2013) The identification of two arabinosyltransferases from tomato reveals functional equivalency of xyloglucan side-chain substituents. Plant Physiology 163: 86-64. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.113.221788
  107. Kim, Seong H; Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Yong Bum; and Xi, Xiaoning (2013) Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Spectroscopic Study of Crystalline Cellulose in Biomass Proc. SPIE 8845: 884508. DOI: 10.1117/12.2024099
  108. Maghsoudy-Louyeh, Sahar; Kim, Jeong; Kropf, Matthew; and Tittmann, Bernhard (2013) Subsurface image analysis of plant cell wall with atomic force microscopy. J. Adv. Microsc. Res. 8: 100-104. DOI: 10.1166/jamr.2013.1144
  109. Zamil, MS; Haque, MA; Yi, Hojae; Puri Virendra M (2013) Characterizing microscale biological samples under tensile loading - Stress-strain behavior of onion outer epidermal cell wall fragment. Am. J. Bot. 100: 1105-1115. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1200649
  110. Lee, Christopher M; Mohamed, Mohamed Naseer Ali; Watts, Heath D; Kubicki, James D; and Kim, Seong H (2013) Sum-Frequency-Generation vibration spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations with dispersion corrections (DFT-D2) for cellulose Iα and Iβ. J. Phys. Chem. B, 117 (22): 6681-6692. DOI: 10.1021/jp402998s
  111. Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Haigler, Candace H; Kubicki, James D; Zimmer, Jochen; Bonetta, Dario; DeBolt, Seth; Yingling, Yaroslava G (2013) Tertiary model of a plant cellulose synthase. PNAS 110: 7512-7517. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1301027110
  112. Liu Y, Marshall J, Qiong L, Edwards N, and Chen G (2013) Synthesis of novel bivalent mimetic ligands for mannose-6-phosphate receptors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 23, 2328–2331. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.02.068
  113. Xiao, Chaowen and Anderson, Charles T (2013) Roles of pectin in biomass yield and processing for biofuels. Front. Plant Sci. 4:67, 1-7. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00067
  114. Li S, Lei L, Gu Y (2013) Functional analysis of complexes with mixed primary and secondary cellulose synthases. Plant Signaling Behav. 8(3): e23179. DOI: 10.4161/psb.23179
  115. Yi H, Thakur S, Sethaphong L, Yingling YG (2013) X3DBio2: A Visual Analysis Tool for Biomolecular Structure Comparison. Proc. SPIE: 8654. DOI: 10.1117/12.2002626
  116. Kubicki JD, Mohamed MNA, Watts HD (2013)Quantum mechanical modeling of the structures, energetics and spectral properties of Iα and Iβ cellulose. Cellulose 20: 9-23. DOI 10.1007/s10570-012-9838-6. Open access: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10570-012-9838-6
  117. Gu J, Catchmark JM, Kaiser E, Archibald D (2013) Quantification of cellulose nanowhiskers sulfate esterification levels. Carbohyd Polym. 92(2): 1809–1816. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.10.078
  118. Zhao Z, Shklyaev OE, Nili A, Mohamed MNA, Kubicki JD, Crespi VH, Zhong L (2013) Cellulose Microfibril Twist, Mechanics, and Implication for Cellulose Biosynthesis. J. Phys. Chem. A, 117 (12): 2580–2589. DOI: 10.1021/jp3089929
  119. Iyer PR, Liu Y-A, Deng Y, McManus JB, Kao T-h, Tien M (2013) Processing of cellulose synthase (AcsAB) from Gluconacetobacter hansenii 23769. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 529: 92-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.abb.2012.12.002
  120. Yi H, Puri VM (2012) Architecture-based multiscale computational modeling of plant cell wall mechanics to examine the hydrogen-bonding hypothesis of cell wall network structure model. Plant Physiol. 160(3):1281-1292. DOI: 10.1104/pp.112.201228
  121. Li S, Gu Y (2012) Cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants and the role of the cytoskeleton. eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0023745
  122. Carroll A, Mansoori N, Li S, Lei L, Vernhettes S, Visser RGF, Somerville CR, Gu Y, Trindade LM (2012) Complexes with mixed primary and secondary cellulose synthases are functional in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Plant Physiol. 160(2):726-37. DOI: 10.1104/pp.112.199208
  123. Cosgrove DJ, Jarvis MC (2012) Comparative structure and biomechanics of plant primary and secondary cell walls. Frontiers in Plant Science 3: 204. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00204
  124. Baskin TI, Gu Y (2012) Making parallel lines meet: Transferring information from microtubules to extracellular matrix. Cell Adhesion. Migration 6(5): 1-5. DOI: 10.4161/cam.21121
  125. Roberts, Alison W.; Roberts, Eric M; and Haigler, Candace H (2012) Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis. Front. Plant Sci. 3: 166. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00166
  126. Lei L, Li S, Gu Y (2012) Cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 (CSI1) mediates the intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and cortical microtubules. Plant Signaling Behavior 7(7): 714-718. DOI: 10.4161/psb.20338
  127. Watts HD, Archibald DD, Mohamed MNA, Kubicki JD (2012) In search of OH-π interactions between 1-methylimidazole and water using a combined computational quantum chemistry and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy approach. Journal of Molecular Structure 1026: 78-87. DOI: 10.1016/j.molstruc.2012.05.028
  128. Cheng, Gang; Datta, Supratim; Liu, Zelin; Wang, Chao; Murton, Jaclyn K; Brown, Page A; Jablin, Michael S; Dubey, Manish; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Halbert, Candice E; Browning, James F; Esker, Alan R; Watson, Brian J; Zhang, Haito; Hutcheson, Steven W; Huber, Dale L; Sale, Kenneth L; Simmons, Blake A; and Kent, Michael S (2012) Interactions of endoglucanases with amorphous cellulose films resolved by neutron reflectometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Langmuir 28: 8348-8358. DOI: 10.1021/la300955q
  129. Wallace, Ian S.; and Anderson, Charles T. (2012) Small molecule probes for plant cell wall polysaccharide imaging. Front. Plant Sci. 3 (89): 1-8. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00089
  130. Barnette AL, Lee C, Bradley LC, Schreiner, EP, Park YB, Shin H, Cosgrove DJ, Park S, Kim SH (2012) Quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy and comparison with other analytical methods. Carbohydrate Polymers 89(3): 802-809. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.04.014
  131. Park YB, Cosgrove DJ (2012) A revised architecture of primary cell walls based on biomechanical changes induced by substrate-specific endoglucanases. Plant Physiology 158: 1933-1943. Open access article: http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/158/4/1933
  132. Lei L, Li S, Gu Y (2012) Cellulose synthase complexes: composition and regulation. Front. Plant Physiol. 3: 75. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00075
  133. Park YB, Cosgrove DJ (2012) Changes in cell wall biomechanical properties in the xyloglucan-deficient xxt1/xxt2 mutant of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 158: 465-475. DOI: 10.1104/pp.111.189779
  134. Gu J, Catchmark JM (2012) Impact of hemicelluloses and pectin on sphere-like bacterial cellulose assembly. Carbohydrate Polymers 88: 547-557. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.12.040
  135. Kittle JD, Wang C, Qian C, Zhang Y, Zhang M, Roman M, Morris JR, Moore RB, Esker AE (2012) Ultrathin chitin films for nanocomposites and biosensors. Biomacromolecules 2012 13 (3): 714-718. DOI: 10.1021/bm201631r
  136. Yi H, Singh A, Yingling YG (2012) X3DBio1: A Visual Analysis Tool for Biomolecular Structure Exploration. Proc, SPIE Visualization and Data Analysis 8294: 82940S-1---82940S-8. DOI: 10.1117/12.906893
  137. Li S, Lei L, Somerville CR, Gu Y (2012) Cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 (CSI1) links microtubules and cellulose synthase complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109: 185-190. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1118560109
  138. Bashline L, Du J, Gu Y (2011) The trafficking and behavior of cellulose synthase and a glimpse of potential cellulose synthesis regulators. Frontiers in Biology 6: 377-383. DOI: 10.1007/s11515-011-1161-3
  139. Watts HD, Mohamed MN, Kubicki JD (2011) Evaluation of potential reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of coniferyl alcohol α-linkages in lignin: a density functional theory study. Phys Chem Chem Phys 13: 20974-85. DOI: 10.1039/c1cp21906e
  140. Kittle JD, Du X, Jiang F, Qian C, Heinze T, Roman M, Esker AR (2011) Equilibrium water contents of cellulose films determined via solvent exchange and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Biomacromolecules 12: 2881-2887. DOI: 10.1021/bm200352q
  141. Cheng G, Liu Z, Murton JK, Jablin M, Dubey M, et al. (2011) Neutron reflectometry and QCM-D study of the interaction of cellulases with films of amorphous cellulose. Biomacromolecules 12: 2216-2224. DOI: 10.1021/bm200305u
  142. Smirnov AI (2011) EPR Studies of Nano Materials. In: Misra SK, editor. Multifrequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance: Theory and Applications. NY: Wiley. pp. 825-843.
  143. Barnette AL, Bradley LC, Veres BD, Schreiner EP, Park YB, et al. (2011) Selective detection of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls with sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy. Biomacromolecules 12: 2434-2439. DOI: 10.1021/bm200518n
  144. Watts HD, Mohamed MN, Kubicki JD (2011) Comparison of multistandard and TMS-standard calculated NMR shifts for coniferyl alcohol and application of the multistandard method to lignin dimers. J Phys Chem B 115: 1958-1970. DOI: 10.1021/jp110330q
  145. Iyer PR, Catchmark J, Brown NR, Tien M (2011) Biochemical localization of a protein involved in synthesis of Gluconacetobacter hansenii cellulose. Cellulose 18: 739-747. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-011-9504-4
  146. Cosgrove DJ (2011) Measuring In Vitro Extensibility of Growing Plant Cell Walls. Plant Cell Wall: Methods and Protocols 715: 291-303. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-61779-008-9_20
  147. Iyer PR, Geib SM, Catchmark J, Kao TH, Tien M (2010) Genome sequence of a cellulose-producing bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769. J Bacteriol 192: 4256-4257. DOI: 10.1128/JB.00588-10
  148. Voinov MA, Smirnov AI (2010) Spin Labels and Spin Probes for Measurements of Local pH and Electrostatics by EPR. In: Chechik V, editor. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 71-106. DOI: 10.1039/9781849730877-00071
  149. Mohamed MN, Watts HD, Guo J, Catchmark JM, Kubicki JD (2010) MP2, density functional theory, and molecular mechanical calculations of C-H-π and hydrogen bond interactions in a cellulose-binding module-cellulose model system. Carbohydr Res 345: 1741-1751. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2010.05.021